The Structure of Matter Definitions

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The Structure of Matter Definitions

Post  SthitChak80 on Thu Mar 10, 2011 5:31 pm

Empirical formula - the composition of a compound in terms of the relative numbers and kinds of atoms in the simplest ratio

Molecular formula - a chemical formula that shows the number and kinds of atoms in a molecule, but not the arrangement of atoms

Organic compound - a covalently bonded compound that contains carbon, excluding carbonates and oxides. EX: acetylsalicylic acid (C9H8O4)

Hydrocarbon - a compound that is made of only carbon and hydrogen atoms. EX: Methane, which is also the simplest hydrogen (CH4)

Alkanes - hydrocarbons that only have single covalent bonds. EX: anything ending in -ane. The chemical formula pattern is CnH2n+2.


Alkenes - hydrocarbons that have at least one double covalent bond between carbon atoms. EX: anything ending in -ene. Simplest alkene is ethene (C3H6)

Alcohols - organic compounds that are made of oxygen as well as hydrogen and carbon. EX: methanol (CH3OH). MOST alcohols have the ending - ol.

Polymer - a large molecule that is formed by more than five monomers, or small units. Cross-links are the bonds that link one polymer chain to another. EX: polyethene, rubber, wood, cotton, wool, starch, protein, protein, and DNA

Biochemical compounds - naturally occurring organic compounds that are very important to living things.

Carbohydrate - any organic compound that is made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen and that provides nutrients to the cells of living things. Many are made of glucose which provides energy to living things.

Protein - an organic compound that is made of one or more chains of amino acids and that is a principal component of all cells

Amino acid - any one of 20 different organic molecules that contain a carboxyl and an amino group and that combine to form proteins

DNA - made of organic molecules containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus, this determines your entire genetic makeup
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